Neanderthals also are known as Neandertal (the name comes from the Feldhofer Cave of Neander Valley near Düsseldorf by Geologist William King) are our extinct human relatives, who came out between 100.000-300.000 years ago and were replaced by modern humans approximately 35.000 years ago. They inhabited Eurasia from the Atlantic regions of Europe eastward to Central Asia and from as far north as present-day Belgium southward to the Mediterranean and southwest Asia.
Their appearance was pretty close to ours. They were short with broad shoulders and big bones, with a large nose for warming cold, with a reduced chin and had the same brain size as modern humans (often larger, depends on their bodies).
Neanderthals made tools with stones (also with bones), clothes and ornamental objects. They were professional hunters of large animals, and they lived in shelters.
It was discovered Mousterian stone tools from the southern Ionian Islands and in Crete Quartz hand-axes, three-sided picks, and stone cleavers.
There is evidence that Neanderthals were living in a nuclear family and during their family member’s death, they intentionally buried their relative and even occasionally marked their graves with offerings (such as flowers).
A study in 2010 study was published in Science magazine about the huge amount of similarity in Neanderthal DNA and modern human DNA (99.7 percent). Researchers of the Neanderthal Genome Project discovered that 2.5 percent of a non-African human’s genes is made up of Neanderthal DNA. However, the average modern African has no Neanderthal DNA.